How to diagnose and fix the 22023 invalid_parameter_value error code in Postgres.

The 22023 error code in PostgreSQL indicates an “invalid parameter value.” This error is raised when a function or operation receives a parameter that has an invalid value or is out of the acceptable range. To diagnose and fix this error, follow these steps:

  1. Review the Query and Parameters:
    Examine the query that caused the error, paying close attention to any parameters that were passed to functions or used in the query.
  2. Check Function Documentation:
    Look up the documentation for the functions you’re using to ensure that the parameters you’re passing are within the valid range and of the correct data type.
  3. Inspect Parameter Values:
    Verify that the parameter values you’re using are indeed valid for the context in which they’re being used. This might include checking for things like non-null values, valid numerical ranges, or appropriate input types.
  4. Use Proper Data Types:
    Ensure that the data types of the parameters match the expected data types of the function arguments or the column data types if you’re inserting or updating values in a table.


Here are some examples of how you might encounter the 22023 error code and what you could do to fix it:

  • Example 1: Invalid Text Representation
  SELECT TO_NUMBER('NotANumber', '9999');

This query will result in a 22023 error because ‘NotANumber’ is not a valid numeric representation for the TO_NUMBER function. To fix this, you would need to provide a valid numeric string:

  SELECT TO_NUMBER('1234', '9999');
  • Example 2: Invalid Date/Time Format
  SELECT TO_TIMESTAMP('2024-02-30', 'YYYY-MM-DD');

This query will result in a 22023 error because ‘2024-02-30’ is not a valid date (February 30th does not exist). You would need to correct the date:

  SELECT TO_TIMESTAMP('2024-02-28', 'YYYY-MM-DD');
  • Example 3: Invalid Encoding Parameter
    If you encounter an error when setting a client encoding that is not supported by your PostgreSQL server, you might see a 22023 error. For instance:
  SET client_encoding TO 'INVALID_ENCODING';

To resolve this, you would need to set the client_encoding to a valid encoding supported by PostgreSQL:

  SET client_encoding TO 'UTF8';
  • Example 4: Invalid Argument for Width Bucket Function
  SELECT WIDTH_BUCKET(5, 1, 10, 0);

This query will result in a 22023 error because the fourth parameter to WIDTH_BUCKET (which represents the number of buckets) cannot be zero. You would need to use a positive integer for the number of buckets:

  SELECT WIDTH_BUCKET(5, 1, 10, 4);

When encountering a 22023 error, the key is to carefully review the parameters you’re providing and ensure they match the expected values for the operation you’re performing. If you’re unsure about the parameters, refer to the PostgreSQL documentation for the function or feature you’re using. In the case of setting parameters like client_encoding, ensure that the value you’re setting is one of the supported encodings.

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