The `2201F`

error code in PostgreSQL indicates “invalid_argument_for_power_function,” which occurs when an invalid argument is passed to the `POWER()`

function. The `POWER()`

function in PostgreSQL is used to raise a number to the power of another number, i.e., `POWER(a, b)`

computes `a^b`

.

To diagnose and fix this error, consider the following:

**Check Argument Types**: Ensure that both arguments`a`

and`b`

are numeric types that are valid for the`POWER()`

function.**Handle Negative Bases with Non-integer Exponents**: The`POWER()`

function will return an error if the base`a`

is negative and the exponent`b`

is not an integer. PostgreSQL cannot handle this because it would result in a complex number, which is not supported.**Avoid Zero Power of Zero**: An attempt to raise zero to the power of zero (`0^0`

) will also result in this error, as this operation is undefined in PostgreSQL.**Prevent Negative Exponent of Zero**: Raising zero to a negative exponent is not allowed since it implies division by zero, which is undefined.

Here are some examples that demonstrate how to avoid the `2201F`

error:

**Correct Usage with Positive Base**:

```
SELECT POWER(2, 3);
-- This will return 8, as it is a valid use of POWER().
```

**Handling Negative Bases**:

```
SELECT POWER(-2, 3);
-- This will return -8, as the exponent is an integer.
SELECT POWER(-2, 2);
-- This will return 4, as the exponent is an integer.
```

**Avoiding Invalid Negative Base with Non-integer Exponent**:

```
-- This will result in an error:
-- SELECT POWER(-2, 0.5);
-- Instead, you can use ABS() to handle the case where the base is negative:
SELECT POWER(ABS(-2), 0.5);
-- This will return the square root of 2.
```

**Avoiding Zero to the Power of Zero**:

```
-- This will result in an error:
-- SELECT POWER(0, 0);
-- You can add a condition to handle this case if necessary:
SELECT CASE
WHEN base = 0 AND exponent = 0 THEN 'undefined'
ELSE POWER(base, exponent)::text
END
FROM (SELECT 0 AS base, 0 AS exponent) AS example;
-- This will return 'undefined'.
```

**Preventing Division by Zero Error**:

```
-- This will result in an error:
-- SELECT POWER(0, -1);
-- You can add a condition to handle this case if necessary:
SELECT CASE
WHEN base = 0 AND exponent < 0 THEN 'infinity'
ELSE POWER(base, exponent)::text
END
FROM (SELECT 0 AS base, -1 AS exponent) AS example;
-- This will return 'infinity'.
```

For more information on error codes and the `POWER()`

function in PostgreSQL, you can refer to the official PostgreSQL documentation.